Water Purification Methods

Posted on: 9 June 2021

Everyone knows water is a vital part of life. However, this does not imply that any kind of water is suitable for human consumption. Water is a natural solvent and might contain impurities. These impurities make water unsafe for drinking as they have disease-causing organisms such as bacteria and amoeba.

Therefore, drinking water requires proper treatments to remove the life-threatening particles. Currently, the typical water treatment systems include the following:


Filtration is the process whereby water is passed through filters to remove impurities such as chemicals, taste, color, and odor. Filtration collects impurities that float on water and ensures disinfection. Additionally, filters are also cleaned by a process called backwashing.

2. Distillation

Distillation is the process of converting liquids into gases through heating. In other words, distillation is the separation of impurities from liquids by boiling them and then collecting and cooling the vapor. After that, the moisture is collected and condensed to a liquid form.

Unlike other procedures where impurities are removed from the water, distillation involves removing water from contaminants.

3. Water Softening

Water is a natural solvent and contains a lot of impurities which makes it hard. As a result, hard water is detected by soap scum in sinks and bathtubs. Water is softened by adding chemicals that form insoluble precipitates. Alternatively, water is softened through ion exchange. This is an industrial process of passing water through a natural resin, consequently exchanging sodium ions with magnesium and calcium ions.

4. Fluoridation

Fluoride occurs naturally and is released from rocks into the water. In fact, drinking fluoridated water reduces tooth decay by about 25 %. Fluoridation adjusts the level of fluoride ions in water. Nonetheless, a high concentration of fluoride in water is disastrous to your bones and teeth.

5. pH Correction

pH is the measure of the acidity levels in the water. Naturally, water is slightly acidic but, the acidity level in water is not the problem. When acidic water comes into contact with metals, it dissolves them resulting in a metal concentration in the water. pH is corrected by passing water through a filter bed of alkaline granular material. A chemical process takes place between the alkaline granular material and water which neutralizing water.

Final Thoughts

Water is prone to contamination, and for that reason, water treatment is crucial. Water can be purified in various ways. Consider getting your water tested before deciding on a water treatment method.